Human growth hormone (growth hormone or GH) or somatotropin is a protein consisting of 191 amino acids having two disulfide bonds. It is released from the anterior pituitary gland lentil a size which weighs less than half a gram and at the base of the brain.
The growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone associated with cellular growth and division and regeneration in animals and humans. It causes an increase in open diaphyses bone and also causes lipolysis in adipose tissue and an increase in skeletal muscle.
Production of growth hormone follows a certain pattern. Not constantly produced but pulsed, approximately 6-12 times a day, with the largest amount of secreted sleeping.
also released and if there are some other factors such as intense exercise, low blood sugar, and stress.
The zinc and the amino acid L-Arginine involved in the physiological secretion of insulin while inhibiting the production of growth hormone.
Secretion is under the control of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamic nerve cells produce two hormones that control the secretion of growth hormone. These hormones are transported via the gateway vasculature in the anterior pituitary, which control its operation.
The a hormone called somatoeklytini (GHRH, Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, hormone releasing of GH secretion) and inducing GH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Secretion is not continuous, but is made by prongs, which cause corresponding peaks in the secretion of growth hormone. Due secretory these peaks, the concentration of GH in the blood varies greatly during the day and its measurement is small relatively value. The GHRH secretion is stronger during the first hours of sleep.
The other hormone called somatostatin and have inhibitory effect on the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary. Note that somatostatin not only produced by the hypothalamus. The D pancreatic cells also secrete somatostatin, which exerts an inhibitory effect on the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones.
It is a molecule that has caused controversy because the administration has both benefits and side effects.
Recombinant human growth hormone is a growth hormone formulation is in widespread use and is equivalent to the native pituitary growth hormone. It is used when there is growth hormone deficiency as well as small stature children with a slow growth rate, but without growth hormone deficiency.
It should be mentioned that the hormone movement is strictly controlled. The administration must be approved by the health services and only when preceded by tests that justify taking it. In some countries it is even illegal private use.
There are many people that in order to promote the release of growth hormone resorting to dietary supplements and other injectable methods, despite the high costs and increased risks causing irreparable damage to health. Scientific studies suggest that abuse of such substances may cause blood sugar, pressure, heart problems, and even cancer.
Growth hormone is a substance with very strong anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Induces protein synthesis in a number of tissues, such as muscle, red blood cells, liver and skin. This achieves easier, especially the amino acid entry into the cells.
By the action of growth hormone in the coupling-cartilage-bone, is promoted along their growth. In adipose tissue promotes lipolysis and has hyperglycemic and, sometimes, diabetogenic action. The aim is to supply the target organs (liver and muscles) with the necessary energy reserves (fatty acids and glucose) and simultaneous saving of amino acids, which are essential for the process of protein synthesis.
The insufficient effect or secretion of growth hormone causes pituitary dwarfism , characterized in very short stature.
Excessive secretion of GH before epiphyseal closure of the bones causes gigantism , of very high height. The excessive secretion of growth hormone after the closure of the epiphyses of the bones causes acromegaly .
The amount of growth hormone secreting someone So, it seems, can make him dwarf or giant-hence the name somatropin. It has an anabolic effect and promotes the growth of the body. It is a peptide hormone with structural similarities to prolactin and placental lactogen hormone.
Today, with one hormone GH-RH solution (GH – releasing hormone in the hypothalamus which stimulates the pituitary gland) in the nose, a child with dwarfism grow normally possible. This is because the hormone causes bone growth in children, ie their height. Affects the coupling of bone cartilage and promotes along their growth.
Another spectacular effect of GH is to increase muscle and reduces body fat at about the same ratio: i.e. if increase muscle at 3.1 pounds will reduce fat by 3.1 kgs.
The GH promotes protein synthesis in a number of tissues, such as muscle, liver and skin, even in RBCs. Mainly because it facilitates the entry of amino acids into cells. Without growth hormone, even if we ate a lot of protein, the body will not know how to use them effectively and have more fat in our body.
In the GH promotes the adipose tissue lipolysis . It also hyperglycaemic activity (increased blood glucose). That hormone, in addition to playing an important role in developing, supplying the muscles and liver with the necessary energy reserves (fatty acids and glucose).
Other benefits of growth hormone is that it enhances the immune system, lowers cholesterol, improves sex performance and make more acute vision. It also contributes significantly to healing the wounds. In deep sleep almost all body organs are in regeneration phase: cells epidiorthonontai and recreated, which is largely due to growth hormone.
It is noteworthy that growth hormone helps in the synthesis of collagen , the protein found in greater amount in the body and maintains “glued” our cells.
Our collagen maintain flexible and supple, strengthens cartilage, tendons, ligaments and bones. Children can stretch their bodies and do many things, while adults tend to over the years to become more rigid because they have reduced production of collagen and one reason for this is the reduced secretion of GH.
With the progress of age, however, production levels decreased significantly.
Growth Hormone and Age
As age progresses, there is a gradual decrease in the production of GH. At 60 or 70, the body produces only 15-20% of the growth hormone had in our youth and an apparent effect is the skin and the elasticity. Also, older people need more time to recuperate after an operation, because they do not have enough GH to restore faster the tissue skin and body.
In the late 1980s, the administration of the hormone acquired aging reputation but today many doctors, speaking publicly, emphasize the side effects can be a healthy person taking synthetic growth hormone. This may be because in recent years the GH has become best known for its illegal use by athletes, but the connection with the doping has been “wronged.” The benefits are undoubtedly cases of people who really need it.
The GH enters our bloodstream rather stable manner but in pulses during sleep -So why sleep is important to children. It acts directly on the bones and fat and indirectly to the development of muscles. As circulating blood rapidly moves to the liver, which helps to produce a molecule called growth factor IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1 or insulin-like growth factor-1).
The GH seems that allows the body to grow approaching closer to the level of features programmed into the individual genes. Today, it is considered that 1-3% of short children have reduced production of growth hormone, and thus could improve the amount by administration of the quantity lacking. But parents should be aware that the cost of such treatment is high and can reach 500-1,000 per month.
Parents should be concerned when after the age of 2 years or until the age of 10 years, the amount that gets the child is less than five centimeters a year. Children who are producing growth hormone deficiency also tend to exhibit fat around the abdomen, brittle bones, low muscle density. The treatment with GH improves all these situations.
Growth hormone can be administered not only children but also adults, presenting diseases of the pituitary.
In the mid-1980s were relatively cheap ways of GH production thanks to biotechnology. The hormone can be produced by a genetically engineered bacterium becoming widely available. In 1985 the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved synthetic form of growth hormone developed by the biotechnology company Genentech and so scientists began to investigate its effects on health.
In 1989, researchers at St. Thomas Hospital in London, led by Dr. Franco Salomon found that growth hormone had positive effects in 24 adults whose pituitary glands have been removed or are not producing enough growth hormone. The experiment lasted six months and showed that patients who received GH injections have an average increase of 5 kg in muscle and loss of 5 kg fat. They had also fallen and their levels of cholesterol in their blood.
The administration of growth hormone in adults with production deficiency is now established and approved therapy. On the other hand, is recognition that the normal, healthy and balanced hormonal people under 40 should not take growth hormone. But the question arises whether the administration of the hormone may have positive effects in older people.
Elderly and athletes
Today there is sufficient evidence that the administration of growth hormone is able to give back to the elderly men and women, even some of its lost vitality they had in their youth. On the other hand can administration have some side effects.
The landmark study in elderly subjects was published in 1990 by Dr. Daniel Rudman , professor of medicine at the Medical School of the State of Wisconsin IPA.O Rudman and colleagues granted growth hormone in 12 healthy men aged 61. 81 years who had relatively low levels of growth factor IGF-1, and the results showed a marked improvement of health and appearance. On average there was an increase in muscle mass by 8.8%, a reduction of 14.4% fat and increase the density of the vertebrae in the lower back by 1.6%. He had reversed the aging at least a decade and enthusiasm created. Some said that the way interception of old age had been found.
also became research into young adults and athletes. Many of these investigations are not published, but some said that the hormone gave athletes the beneficial effects of anabolic steroids without the many harmful side effects.
Some athletes bodybuilding reported that in just six weeks, saw spectacular results which lasted 12 months. Some claimed they had gained over 10 pounds of muscle while confined their body fat. Others said that they had gained height. In an informal study of 150 subjects aged 29-52 years, who received growth hormone, one in six taller approximately 2 inches while several others said that won half centimeter in height. Such results have made the growth hormone to spread the sport as if it were a magic drug. And as not detected in urine, GH became the favorite ingredient of doping .
It should however be noted that a number of athletes, perhaps because they got great growth hormone dosage along with anabolic steroids, showed serious side effects and health problems.
Like many other hormonal therapies, administration of growth hormone is not without risks.
Because promotes growth of connective tissue, it has been reported that can cause the carpal tunnel syndrome and arthritis. Also, a large amount of it can damage the bones, brain, cardiovascular system and cause rapid atherosclerosis. Some researchers have expressed fears that the hormone can lead to irreversible enlargement of the joint diameter, thickening of the vocal cords, osteoporosis, non-resistance to heat or even sexual impotence. Some studies have shown that some people grew of sugar in their blood and gynecomastia.
It has been observed even bulging of internal organs (e.g. heart, liver) and face distortion due to an increase in bone size. There are also fears of cancer by increasing the IGF-1 agent.
Finally, if taken in excess with long-term use of synthetic hormone, can stop forever the natural production by the pituitary gland.
Some believe that the side effects are exaggerated in order not to extend the unjustified use. And they say that even sugar can be blamed indirectly for cancer because it increases the factor IGF-1 (20-30% of cancers are due to increased hormone production).
It should be noted that if there are side effects even when GH is used for approved therapy. A recent study found that children receiving growth hormone are 8.5 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared with those not taking such hormonal therapy.
Nevertheless growth hormone became fashionable in USA after 2006 due to a book published by the Suzanne Somers, 2006, entitled Ageless : The Naked Truth About Bioidentical Hormones . The book talked about the positive influence that the growth hormone in menopausal symptoms and became a bestseller.
The fashion quickly arrived in Hollywood and a director unequivocally stated that the hormone has renewed sex. The star of action films seem to have made use of old. The Arnolnt Svartsenegker (Arnold Schwarzenegger) has refused to take growth hormone but Sylvester Stallone (Sylvester Stallone) and quite a few others admitted. Indeed, in 2008, at the airport in Sydney a check in his luggage Stallone revealed that he had with him 48 vials of growth hormone in a liquid form and the actress accepted a fine 10.651 US dollars by the courts of Australia.
The natural way
Since the administration of synthetic growth hormone firstly very costly and secondly can have side effects, there is another solution: someone help the body to produce more hormone in a natural way: by means of sleep, diet exercise.
Sleep deep step
As previously reported sleep produced the greatest amount of growth hormone. This occurs during REM sleep (rapid eye movement). This type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement. It appears at regular intervals, approximately every 1.5 hours and is accompanied by the swift movements of the eyeballs. This phenomenon made the scientists to divide sleep into two basic phases: REM sleep and Non-REM sleep. Some teens produce up to 40 times more growth hormone in their sleep than day.
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